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Hazardous Waste Essay Writing Help, Toxic Chemical Waste Informatoin, Samples
Institutional Login. Log in to Wiley Online Library. Purchase Instant Access. View Preview. Learn more Check out. Citing Literature. Volume 12 , Issue 1 March Pages Related Information. Close Figure Viewer. For example, the efforts to reduce material use are reflected in some new computer designs that are flatter, lighter and more integrated. Other companies propose centralized networks similar to the telephone system.
Use of renewable materials and energy: Bio-based plastics are plastics made with plant-based chemicals or plant-produced polymers rather than from petrochemicals.
Example research essay topic Hazardous Wastes Toxic Wastes
Bio-based toners, glues and inks are used more frequently. Solar computers also exist but they are currently very expensive. Some computer manufacturers such as Dell and Gateway lease out their products thereby ensuring they get them back to further upgrade and lease out again. The Environmental Protection Agency- Ghana established under the Environmental Protection Agency Act, Act is responsible for regulating the generation and management of hazardous wastes and other waste.
Obligations of the Agency: The Agency shall Enforcement notice: 1 Where the Minister, the Agency or any appropriate authority has reasonable grounds for suspecting that any of the requirements of this Part have not been complied with, an enforcement notice shall be served on the defaulting person. Unfortunately, this bill is still pending at parliament draft for years waiting to be enacted or passed and made a law. It further discusses the types of hazardous waste, characteristics of hazardous waste and the impact of hazardous waste on human and environment.
It also looks at the various challenges in dealing treatment of hazardous waste in Ghana. Waste according to the Basel convention: Wastes are substances or objects which are disposed or are intended to be disposed or are required to be disposed of by the provisions of national laws. Wastes may be generated during the extraction of raw materials, the processing of raw materials into intermediate and final products, the consumption of final products, and other human activities. Residuals recycled or reused at the place of generation are excluded.
The universe of hazardous wastes is large and diverse. Hazardous wastes can be liquids, solids, or contained gases. They can be the by-products of manufacturing processes, discarded used materials, or discarded unused commercial products, such as cleaning fluids solvents or pesticides. In regulatory terms, a hazardous waste is a waste that appears on one of the four RCRA1 hazardous wastes lists the F-list, K-list, P-list, or U-list or that exhibits one of the four characteristics of a hazardous waste - ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity, or toxicity.
However, materials can be hazardous wastes even if they are not specifically listed or don't exhibit any characteristic of a hazardous waste. For example, "used oil," products which contain materials on California's M-list, materials regulated pursuant to the mixture or derived-from rules, and contaminated soil generated from a "clean up" can also be hazardous wastes.
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Hazardous wastes are incorporated into five lists. Since the processes producing these wastes occur in many different industry sectors, the F-listed wastes are known as wastes from non-specific sources. Non-specific meaning they don't come from one specific industry or one specific industrial or manufacturing process. Also, certain sludges and wastewaters from treatment and production processes in these specific industries are examples of source-specific wastes.
The P-list and the U-list discarded commercial chemical products : These lists include specific commercial chemical products that have not been used, but that will be or have been discarded. Industrial chemicals, pesticides, and pharmaceuticals are example of commercial chemical products that appear on these lists and become hazardous waste when discarded. Examples include waste oil and used solvents. The characteristic of ignitability is defined in section Corrosivity — Corrosive wastes are materials, including solids, that are acids or bases, or that produce acidic or alkaline solutions.
Aqueous wastes with a pH less than or equal to 2.
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A liquid waste may also be corrosive if it is able to corrode metal containers, such as storage tanks, drums, and barrels. Spent battery acid is an example. The characteristic of corrosivity is defined in section Test methods that may be used to determine if a waste exhibits the characteristic of corrosivity are pH Electronic Measurement and Corrosivity towards Steel. Reactivity — Reactive wastes are unstable under normal conditions. They can cause explosions or release toxic fumes, gases, or vapors when heated, compressed, or mixed with water.
Examples include lithium-sulfur batteries and unused explosives. The characteristic of reactivity is defined in section There are currently no test methods available for reactivity. Instead wastes are evaluated for reactivity using the narrative criteria set forth in the hazardous waste regulations.
Toxicity — Toxic wastes are harmful or fatal when ingested or absorbed e.
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When toxic wastes are disposed, the toxic constituents may leach from the waste and pollute ground water. The characteristic of toxicity is defined in section It contains eight subsections, as described below. A waste is a toxic hazardous waste if it is identified as being toxic by any one or more of the eight subsections of this characteristic. EPA Test Method The TCLP identifies wastes as hazardous that may leach hazardous concentrations of toxic substances into the environment.
This criterion does not apply to wastes that are excluded from regulation under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Acute Oral Toxicity: Toxic because the waste either is an acutely toxic substance or contains an acutely toxic substance, if ingested. As stated in subsection A calculated oral LD50 may be used. Acute Dermal Toxicity: Toxic because the waste either is an acutely toxic substance or contains an acutely toxic substance, if dermal exposure occurs.
A calculated dermal LD50 may be used.
Hazardous Waste Essay
Acute Inhalation Toxicity: Toxic because the waste either is an acutely toxic substance or contains an acutely toxic substance, if inhaled. Acute Aquatic Toxicity: Toxic because the waste is toxic to fish. Carcinogenicity: Toxic because it contains one or more carcinogenic substances. Experience or Testing: Pursuant to subsection At the present time, only wastes containing ethylene glycol e. These cuttings can vary in size and texture, from fine silt to gravel. The cuttings are carried back to the surface by the drilling mud which is all hazardous.
The primary functions of drilling fluids used in oil and gas field drilling operations include removal of drilled cuttings rock chippings from the wellbore and control of formation pressures. Other important functions include sealing permeable formations, maintaining wellbore stability, cooling and lubricating the drill bit, and transmitting hydraulic energy to the drilling tools and bit. Drilled cuttings removed from the wellbore and spent drilling fluids are typically the largest waste streams generated during oil and gas drilling activities.
Drilling Fluid Composition: Drilling fluid consists of a continuous liquid phase, to which various chemicals and solids have been added to modify the operational properties of the resulting mix. Key operational properties include density, viscosity, fluid loss, ion-exchange parameters, reactivity and salinity. Waste Based Fluids WBFs consist of water mixed with bentonite clay and barium sulphate barite to control mud density and thus, hydrostatic head. Other substances are added to gain the desired drilling properties.
These additives include thinners e.