Corporate social responsibility or CSR: an umbrella term under which the ethical rights and duties existing between companies and society is debated. Issues regarding the moral rights and duties between a company and its shareholders: fiduciary responsibility, stakeholder concept v. Ethical issues concerning relations between different companies: e.
Law reform, such as the ethical debate over introducing a crime of corporate manslaughter. The misuse of corporate ethics policies as marketing instruments. Insider trading, securities fraud, bucket shop, forex scams: concerns criminal manipulation of the financial markets.
Bribery, kickbacks, and facilitation payments: while these may be in the short-term interests of the company and its shareholders, these practices may be anti-competitive or offend against the values of society. Discrimination issues include discrimination on the bases of age ageism , gender, race, religion, disabilities, weight and attractiveness.
Essay about Morals, Values, and Ethics
See also: affirmative action, sexual harassment. Issues surrounding the representation of employees and the democratization of the workplace: union busting, strike breaking. Issues affecting the privacy of the employee: workplace surveillance, drug testing. Issues affecting the privacy of the employer: whistle-blowing. Issues relating to the fairness of the employment contract and the balance of power between employer and employee: slavery, indentured servitude, employment law.
Occupational safety and health. To some extent society regards this as acceptable, but where is the ethical line to be drawn? Marketing ethics overlaps strongly with media ethics, because marketing makes heavy use of media. However, media ethics is a much larger topic and extends outside business ethics. Pricing: price fixing, price discrimination, price skimming. Anti-competitive practices: these include but go beyond pricing tactics to cover issues such as manipulation of loyalty and supply chains. See: anti-competitive practices, antitrust law.
Specific marketing strategies: greenwash, bait and switch, shill, viral marketing, spam electronic , pyramid scheme, planned obsolescence. Content of advertisements: attack ads, subliminal messages, sex in advertising, products regarded as immoral or harmful Children and marketing: marketing in schools. Some of the more acute dilemmas in this area arise out of the fact that there is usually a degree of danger in any product or production process and it is difficult to define a degree of permissibility, or the degree of permissibility may depend on the changing state of preventative technologies or changing social perceptions of acceptable risk.
Defective, addictive and inherently dangerous products and services e. Ethical relations between the company and the environment: pollution, environmental ethics, carbon emissions trading. Ethical problems arising out of new technologies: genetically modified food, mobile phone radiation and health. Product testing ethics: animal rights and animal testing, use of economically disadvantaged groups such as students as test objects. Nor is it obvious who has the greater rights to an idea: the company who trained the employee or the employee themselves?
As a result, attempts to assert ownership and ethical disputes over ownership arise.
Patent infringement, copyright infringement, trademark infringement. Misuse of the intellectual property systems to stifle competition: patent misuse, copyright misuse, patent troll, submarine patent. Even the notion of intellectual property itself has been criticised on ethical grounds: see intellectual property. Employee raiding: the practice of attracting key employees away from a competitor to take unfair advantage of the knowledge or skills they may possess.
The practice of employing all the most talented people in a specific field, regardless of need, in order to prevent any competitors employing them. Bioprospecting ethical and biopiracy unethical. Business intelligence and industrial espionage. Theoretical issues such as cultural relativity of ethical values receive more emphasis in this field.
Other, older issues can be grouped here as well. Issues and subfields include: The search for universal values as a basis for international commercial behavior. Comparison of business ethical traditions in different countries. Comparison of business ethical traditions from various religious perspectives. Ethical issues arising out of international business transactions; e. Issues such as globalization and cultural imperialism. Varying global standards — e. The way in which multinationals take advantage of international differences, such as outsourcing production e.
The permissibility of international commerce with pariah states. Very often, situations arise in which there is conflict between one or more of the parties, such that serving the interest of one party is a detriment to the other s. For example, a particular outcome might be good for the employee, whereas, it would be bad for the company, society, or vice versa. Some ethicists e. For example, some suggest that the principal purpose of a business is to maximize returns to its owners, or in the case of a publicly-traded concern, its shareholders.
Thus, under this view, only those activities that increase profitability and shareholder value should be encouraged.
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Some believe that the only companies that are likely to survive in a competitive marketplace are those that place profit maximization above everything else. However, some point out that self interest would still require a business to obey the law and adhere to basic moral rules, because the consequences of failing to do so could be very costly in fines, loss of licensure, or company reputation. The economist Milton Friedman was a leading proponent of this view.
Other theorists contend that a business has moral duties that extend well beyond serving the interests of its owners or stockholders, and that these duties consist of more than simply obeying the law. They believe a business has moral responsibilities to so-called stakeholders, people who have an interest in the conduct of the business, which might include employees, customers, vendors, the local community, or even society as a whole.
They would say that stakeholders have certain rights with regard to how the business operates, and some would suggest that this includes even rights of governance. Ethical issues can arise when companies must comply with multiple and sometimes conflicting legal or cultural standards, as in the case of multinational companies that operate in countries with varying practices. The question arises, for example, ought a company to obey the laws of its home country, or should it follow the less stringent laws of the developing country in which it does business? To illustrate, United States law forbids companies from paying bribes either domestically or overseas; however, in other parts of the world, bribery is a customary, accepted way of doing business.
Similar problems can occur with regard to child labor, employee safety, work hours, wages, discrimination, and environmental protection laws. It is claimed that in a competitive business environment, those companies that survive are the ones that recognize that their only role is to maximize profits. On this view, the competitive system fosters a downward ethical spiral.
Ethics have become a part and parcel of the entire manufacturing process. Sometime back the bottom line of an enterprise used to be monetary profits but this bottom line today comprises a whole gamut of subjects like quality assurance, environmental friendly practices, Corporate Social Responsibility CSR and many more. Gone are the days when companies could act philanthropic and charitable by parting with a miniscule portion of their profits. There is no recognition for an organization that fails to recognize ethics and values in its domain area. Motorola is known around the world for innovation and leadership in wireless and broadband communications.
Inspired by its vision of Seamless Mobility, the people of Motorola are committed to helping people get and stay connected simply and seamlessly to information, and entertainment that you want and need. Since its original establishment in the s, its Code of Business Conduct has provided Motorola employees guidance for their business activities, placing a priority on establishing trust with its stakeholders. However, it is not enough to declare its good values.
The EthicsLine offers information, advice and suggestions. Use it to discuss any concern or problem — not just for emergencies. The EthicsLine strives to make sure that all questions or concerns are handled fairly, discreetly and thoroughly.
Ethics Essay Writing Tips and Topic Samples on Moral Values
Our products will change. Our people will change. Our customers will change. What will not change is our commitment to our key beliefs. The key beliefs define who they are as individuals and as a company — to each other, its customers, its shareholders, its suppliers, its competitors and its communities. Uncompromising integrity means staying true to what they believe. Motorola adheres to honesty, fairness and doing the right thing without compromise, even when circumstances make it difficult. Constant respect for people means how Motorola treats everyone with dignity.
Constant respect applies to every individual they interact with around the world.
Morals, Values, and Ethics Essays
It summarizes many of the laws that Motorola and all Motorolans are required to live by. The Code goes beyond the legal minimums, however, by describing the ethical values we share as Motorolans. The Code is neither a contract nor a comprehensive manual that covers every situation Motorolans throughout the world might encounter. It highlights key issues and identifies policies and resources to help Motorolans reach decisions that will make Motorola proud.
Motorolans will treat each other with respect and fairness at all times. They will value the difference of diverse individuals from around the world. Employment decisions will be based on business reasons, such as qualifications, talents and achievements, and will comply with local and national employment laws. Abusive, harassing or offensive conduct is unacceptable, whether verbal, physical or visual. Examples include derogatory comments based on racial or ethnic characteristics and unwelcome sexual advances.
They are all responsible for maintaining a safe workplace by following safety and health rules and practices.