Alhazens billiard problem extended essay

During the Middle Ages his books on cosmology were translated into Latin, Hebrew and other languages. The impact crater Alhazen on the Moon is named in his honour, [] as was the asteroid Alhazen. He was voiced by Alfred Molina in the episode. Over forty years previously, Jacob Bronowski presented Alhazen's work in a similar television documentary and the corresponding book , The Ascent of Man. In episode 5 The Music of the Spheres , Bronowski remarked that in his view, Alhazen was "the one really original scientific mind that Arab culture produced", whose theory of optics was not improved on till the time of Newton and Leibniz.

Winter, a British historian of science, summing up the importance of Ibn al-Haytham in the history of physics wrote:. After the death of Archimedes no really great physicist appeared until Ibn al-Haytham. If, therefore, we confine our interest only to the history of physics, there is a long period of over twelve hundred years during which the Golden Age of Greece gave way to the era of Muslim Scholasticism, and the experimental spirit of the noblest physicist of Antiquity lived again in the Arab Scholar from Basra.

An international campaign, created by the Inventions organisation, titled Inventions and the World of Ibn Al-Haytham featuring a series of interactive exhibits, workshops and live shows about his work, partnering with science centers, science festivals, museums, and educational institutions, as well as digital and social media platforms. Smith has noted that Alhazen's treatment of refraction describes an experimental setup without publication of data. According to medieval biographers, Alhazen wrote more than works on a wide range of subjects, of which at least 96 of his scientific works are known.

Most of his works are now lost, but more than 50 of them have survived to some extent. Nearly half of his surviving works are on mathematics, 23 of them are on astronomy, and 14 of them are on optics, with a few on other subjects. For other uses, see Alhazen disambiguation and Ibn al-Haytham disambiguation. Basra , Iraq. Cairo , Egypt.

Basra Cairo. Optics Astronomy Mathematics.


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Main article: Book of Optics. See also: Horopter. Further information: Scientific method. Main article: Alhazen's problem. This section contains information of unclear or questionable importance or relevance to the article's subject matter. May Mark Smith has determined that there were at least two translators, based on their facility with Arabic; the first, more experienced scholar began the translation at the beginning of Book One, and handed it off in the middle of Chapter Three of Book Three. Smith 91 Volume 1: Commentary and Latin text pp.

See also his , , translations. Falco Rosenthal — El-Bizri , p. Smith , p. Mark "Ptolemy, Optics" Isis Vol. Mark Smith American Philosophical Society. Also Alhacen , Avennathan , Avenetan , etc. Vernet , p. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.

Retrieved 23 June Encyclopaedia of Islam. He is one of the principal Arab mathematicians and, without any doubt, the best physicist. Encyclopedia Britannica. Esposito, John L. The Oxford History of Islam. Oxford University Press. His optical compendium, Kitab al-Manazir, is the greatest medieval work on optics. Retrieved 2 June Retrieved 9 October Specifically, he was the first to explain that vision occurs when light bounces on an object and then enters an eye. Adamson, Peter 7 July Baker, David B. Haq, Syed Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages. Retrieved 22 October Al-Khalili, Jim 4 January BBC News.

Retrieved 24 September Gorini, Rosanna October First steps in the science of vision" PDF. Retrieved 25 September According to Al-Qifti. Noted by Abu'l-Hasan Bayhaqi ca. Sabra encyclopedia. Corbin , p.


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The Prisoner of Al-Hakim. Archived from the original on 30 September Retrieved 27 May Crombie , p. Alhazen — : Library of Congress Citations , Malaspina Great Books, archived from the original on 27 September , retrieved 23 January [ verification needed ] Smith , p. Lindberg , p. Al Deek Heeffer History of Photography.

Other works on physics

New York: Columbia University Press. Howard Aaen-Stockdale Wade , pp. Lejeune Sabra Raynaud Russell , p.

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Lindberg , pp. Wade , p. Katz , pp. Smith Elkin, Jack M. Russell Khaleefa Aaen-Stockdale Hershenson , pp. Ross He gave the world modern trigonometry. Along with Lagrange he pioneered the calculus of variations. He was also supreme at discrete mathematics, inventing graph theory and generating functions.

02 ALHAZEN

Euler was also a major figure in number theory, proving that the sum of the reciprocals of primes less than x is approx. Euler was first to explore topology, proving theorems about the Euler characteristic. He also made several important advances in physics, e.

Euler combined his brilliance with phenomenal concentration. Both these feats were accomplished when he was totally blind. The reputations of Euler and the Bernoullis are so high that it is easy to overlook that others in that epoch made essential contributions to mathematical physics. Alexis Clairaut was extremely precocious, delivering a math paper at age 13, and becoming the youngest person ever elected to the Paris Academy of Sciences. He developed the concept of skew curves the earliest precursor of spatial curvature ; he made very important contributions in differential equations and mathematical physics.

Measurements at high latitudes showed the poles to be flattened: Newton was right. Clairaut worked on the theories of ellipsoids and the three-body problem, e.

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That orbit was the major mathematical challenge of the day, and there was great difficulty reconciling theory and observation. It was Clairaut who finally resolved this, by approaching the problem with more rigor than others. During the century after Newton, the Laws of Motion needed to be clarified and augmented with mathematical techniques.

Jean le Rond, named after the Parisian church where he was abandoned as a baby, played a very key role in that development. These are the same techniques in use for many problems in physics to this day. With his treatises on dynamics, elastic collisions, hydrodynamics, cause of winds, vibrating strings, celestial motions, refraction, etc. He also did creative work in geometry e.

Lambert had to drop out of school at age 12 to help support his family, but went on to become a mathematician of great fame and breadth. He proved more strongly that tan x and e x are both irrational for any non-zero rational x. Lambert was first to explore straight-edge constructions without compass. He also developed non-Euclidean geometry, long before Bolyai and Lobachevsky did. Joseph-Louis Lagrange born Giuseppe Lodovico Lagrangia was a brilliant man who advanced to become a teen-age Professor shortly after first studying mathematics.

He excelled in all fields of analysis and number theory; he made key contributions to the theories of determinants, continued fractions, and many other fields.

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He developed partial differential equations far beyond those of D. He proved a fundamental Theorem of Group Theory. Unlike Newton, who used calculus to derive his results but then worked backwards to create geometric proofs for publication, Lagrange relied only on analysis. Ball and E. Gaspard Monge, son of a humble peddler, was an industrious and creative inventor who astounded early with his genius, becoming a professor of physics at age As a military engineer he developed the new field of descriptive geometry, so useful to engineering that it was kept a military secret for 15 years.

Traveling with Napoleon he demonstrated great courage on several occasions. Monge is most famous for laying the foundation for differential geometry. Monge was an inspirational teacher whose students included Fourier, Sophie Germain, Chasles, Brianchon, Ampere, Carnot, Poncelet and several other famous mathematicians.

While Newton had shown that the two-body gravitation problem led to orbits which were ellipses or other conic sections , Laplace was more interested in the much more difficult problems involving three or more bodies.