If you do not want to name the author in the text, start the citation with their last name in parentheses at the end of the quote or the information you wish to cite. If there is more than one author, list their last names, separated by commas. If there are 6 or more authors for the paper, include the last name of the first author listed and then write "et al. For example, you may write, "'This is a quote' Minaj et al. Write the name of the organization if there is no author. If you are quoting from a research paper or article with no author, look for the name of the organization that published the paper.
Sample Reference List Citations - Citing Sources - Research Guides at Dickinson College
Use words from the title in quotation marks if there is no author or organization. If you cannot find an author or an organization that published the paper, you can use the first words of the title of the paper instead. Include the year of publication for the paper. Place a comma between the author or title of the paper and the publication date.
Note the page number where the quote or information appears in the paper.
APA Citation Style, 6th edition: Secondary Sources
Count the paragraphs in the paper and number them in order. Determine that your source is published. Note the author of the paper by last name and first 2 initials. Place a comma between the author's full last name and their first and second initials if you know them. If there are multiple authors, list them by last name and then their initials, separated by a comma. Include the year the paper was published in parentheses, followed by a period.
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Put a period between the author or organization name and the publication year for the research paper or article. List the title of the paper. Include the entire title of the research paper or article in the citation. Capitalize only the first letter of the first word in the title, as well as any proper nouns.
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Crustaceans: Research and data. Cervical cancer rates in women ages Note the title of the publication in which the paper appears. Modern Journal of Malacostracan Research, 25, Short quotations. If you are directly quoting from a work, include the author, year of publication, and the page number for the reference preceded by "p.
Introduce the quotation with a signal phrase that includes the author's last name followed by the date of publication in parentheses. According to Jones , "Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time" p. Jones found "students often had difficulty using APA style" p.
If the author is not named in a signal phrase, place the author's last name, the year of publication, and the page number in parentheses after the quotation. Long quotations. Direct quotations longer than 40 words should be in a free-standing block of typewritten lines, and omit quotation marks. Start the quotation on a new line, indented five spaces from the left margin. Type the entire quotation on the new margin, and indent the first line of any subsequent paragraph within the quotation five spaces from the new margin.
Maintain double-spacing throughout. The parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark. Jones's study found the following:. Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time citing sources. Summary or Paraphrase. When paraphrasing, make reference to the author and year of publication in your in-text reference, but APA guidelines encourage you to also provide the page number not required.
According to Jones , APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners.
APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners Jones, , p. Citing an Author or Authors. Two Authors: Name both authors in the signal phrase or in the parentheses each time you cite the work.
Use the word "and" between the authors' names within the text and use the ampersand in the parentheses. Three to Five Authors: List all the authors in the signal phrase or in parentheses the first time you cite the source. In subsequent citations, only use the first author's last name followed by "et al. Six or More Authors: Use the first author's name followed by et al. Unknown Author: If the work does not have an author, cite the source by its title in the signal phrase or use the first word or two in the parentheses. Titles of books and reports are italicized or underlined; titles of articles and chapters are in quotation marks.
Organization as an Author: If the author is an organization or a government agency, mention the organization in the signal phrase or in the parenthetical citation the first time you cite the source.
If the organization has a well-known abbreviation, include the abbreviation in brackets the first time the source is cited and then use only the abbreviation in later citations. For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association , 6 th ed. Reference citations in text are covered on pages of the Publication Manual. What follows are some general guidelines for referring to the works of others in your essay.
When using APA format, follow the author-date method of in-text citation.
This means that the author's last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, for example, Jones, , and a complete reference should appear in the reference list at the end of the paper. If you are referring to an idea from another work but NOT directly quoting the material, or making reference to an entire book, article or other work, you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication and not the page number in your in-text reference.
All sources that are cited in the text must appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.
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Note: in your References list, only the first word of a title will be capitalized: Writing new media.