But some children are working in highly hazardous conditions. For examples fireworks and match box units in Sivakasi in Ramanathapuram district in Tamil Nadu employ 45, children. A large number of children are working in stone polishing units in Jaipur, brassware industry in Moradabad, lock making units in Aligarh, Slate- industry in Markapur Andhra Pradesh , Mandsaur Madhya Pradesh and the carpet-making in Jammu and Kashmir.
The first Act to regulate the employment of children and their hours of work was the Factory Act of A Commission was established in to fix the minimum age of child employment, on whose recommendation, the Child Labour Act was passed prohibiting employment of children below 14 yeas of age. The Factory Act of provided some safeguards to child labourers. They are unable to recognise that what is wrong and illegal for them instead they become happy getting small money for their work. Unknowingly they become interested in the getting money on daily basis and ruining their whole life and future.
Children are conserved as the most important asset of their country however improper understanding of the parents and poverty making them the reason for the weakness of the country instead of being the power of the country. Most of the children under poverty line are forced to do the child labour daily even after the lots of awareness program run by the government and future welfare of society towards the welfare of the child.
Children are the new flower with powerful fragrance of any nation however some people are declining the power and destroying the future of the country just for earning small money by illegally involving the growing kids. They are playing with the moral of the innocent people and their kids. Protecting children from the child labour is the responsibility of each and every citizen living in the country.
Causes of Child Labor | The University of Iowa Labor Center
Child labour is the socio-economic issue which is coming from long ago and now need to be solved on ultimate basis. After the independence of the country, various laws and regulations has been implemented regarding the child labour however it did not found its end in the country. Child labour ruining the innocence of the kids by directly destroying their health physically, mentally, socially and intellectually. Children are the lovely creation of the nature but it is not fair that due to some bad circumstances they are forced to do hard labour before their appropriate age. Child labour is the global issue which is more common in the underdeveloped countries.
Poor parents or parents under poverty line are unable to afford the education expenses of their kids and they own unable to earn enough money for the family survival. So, they better choose to involve their kids in hard work to fulfil their needs instead of sending them to school. They understand that schooling is a waste of time and earning money in early age is good for their family.
It is the urgent need to aware the poor people as well as rich people to not use asset of country in wrong way about the bad effects of the child labour. They must be availed with all the resources which they lack. It should be done by the end of everyone. Rich people should help the poor people so that their children too can get all the required things in childhood.
Child Labor – Essay 2.
It needs some effective rules and regulations by the government to completely end its roots forever. What is Child Labour Child labour is a type crime in which children are forced to work in their very early age and perform the responsibilities just like adults by taking part in the economic activities.
According to the International Labour Organization ILO , there is an age limit applied to the children that children up to age fifteen will not involve in any type of work forcefully. It is an employment of the children in any type of work which makes children deprived of childhood, proper education, physical, mental and social well being.
It is completely forbidden in some countries however has been an international concern in most of the countries as it is destroying the future of children to a great extent. It is a serious matter a big social problem in most of the developing countries. Small age group children are being involved in the child labor hugely by the people of high status.
They are avoiding the fact that children are the big hope and future of the nation. Millions of children have been deprived of the childhood and proper education in our country which is a dangerous sign. Such children do not get the chance of living a healthy life as they are not satisfied physically, mentally and socially from their childhood. According to the Indian law, children below the age of 14 years cannot be employed to any type of work forcefully whether by the parents or owner in a factories, offices or restaurants.
What are the Causes of Child Labour There are various reasons of child labor in our country. Some of the causes of global child labor are similar however differ country to country.
Most common reasons are like poverty, repression of child rights, improper education, limited rules and laws on child labor, etc. Following are some important points regarding causes of child labour:. What are the Solutions to Child Labour In order to eliminate the social issue of child labor, there is need to follow some effective solutions on urgent basis to save the future of any developing country.
An estimated 1. In , over 2 million children in the same age group were employed in the United States. Hine took these photographs between and as the staff photographer for the National Child Labor Committee. Factories and mines were not the only places where child labour was prevalent in the early 20th century. Home-based manufacturing across the United States and Europe employed children as well. Legislation that followed had the effect of moving work out of factories into urban homes. Families and women, in particular, preferred it because it allowed them to generate income while taking care of household duties.
Home-based manufacturing operations were active year-round. Families willingly deployed their children in these income generating home enterprises. Children aged 5—14 worked alongside the parents. Home-based operations and child labour in Australia, Britain, Austria and other parts of the world was common. Rural areas similarly saw families deploying their children in agriculture.
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In , Frieda S. Miller — then Director of the United States Department of Labor — told the International Labour Organization that these home-based operations offered "low wages, long hours, child labour, unhealthy and insanitary working conditions". Child labour is still common in many parts of the world. Estimates for child labour vary. It ranges between and million, if children aged 5—17 involved in any economic activity are counted.
If light occasional work is excluded, ILO estimates there were million child labourers aged 5—14 worldwide in This is about 20 million less than ILO estimate for child labourers in Some 60 percent of the child labour was involved in agricultural activities such as farming, dairy, fisheries and forestry. Some children work as guides for tourists, sometimes combined with bringing in business for shops and restaurants.
Contrary to popular belief, most child labourers are employed by their parents rather than in manufacturing or formal economy. Children who work for pay or in-kind compensation are usually found in rural settings as opposed to urban centres. Africa has the highest percentage of children aged 5—17 employed as child labour, and a total of over 65 million.
Asia, with its larger population, has the largest number of children employed as child labour at about million. Latin America and the Caribbean region have lower overall population density, but at 14 million child labourers has high incidence rates too. Accurate present day child labour information is difficult to obtain because of disagreements between data sources as to what constitutes child labour. In some countries, government policy contributes to this difficulty. For example, the overall extent of child labour in China is unclear due to the government categorizing child labour data as "highly secret".
In , the U. Department of Labor issued a List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor , where China was attributed 12 goods the majority of which were produced by both underage children and indentured labourers. The Maplecroft Child Labour Index survey  reports that 76 countries pose extreme child labour complicity risks for companies operating worldwide. Of the major growth economies, Maplecroft ranked Philippines 25th riskiest, India 27th, China 36th, Vietnam 37th, Indonesia 46th, and Brazil 54th, all of them rated to involve extreme risks of child labour uncertainties, to corporations seeking to invest in developing world and import products from emerging markets.
International Labour Organization ILO suggests poverty is the greatest single cause behind child labour.
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Other scholars such as Harsch on African child labour, and Edmonds and Pavcnik on global child labour have reached the same conclusion. Lack of meaningful alternatives, such as affordable schools and quality education, according to ILO,  is another major factor driving children to harmful labour. Children work because they have nothing better to do. Even when schools are sometimes available, they are too far away, difficult to reach, unaffordable or the quality of education is so poor that parents wonder if going to school is really worth it.
In European history when child labour was common, as well as in contemporary child labour of modern world, certain cultural beliefs have rationalised child labour and thereby encouraged it. Some view that work is good for the character-building and skill development of children. In many cultures, particular where the informal economy and small household businesses thrive, the cultural tradition is that children follow in their parents' footsteps; child labour then is a means to learn and practice that trade from a very early age. Similarly, in many cultures the education of girls is less valued or girls are simply not expected to need formal schooling, and these girls pushed into child labour such as providing domestic services.
Biggeri and Mehrotra have studied the macroeconomic factors that encourage child labour.
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They suggest  that child labour is a serious problem in all five, but it is not a new problem. Macroeconomic causes encouraged widespread child labour across the world, over most of human history. They suggest that the causes for child labour include both the demand and the supply side. While poverty and unavailability of good schools explain the child labour supply side, they suggest that the growth of low-paying informal economy rather than higher paying formal economy is amongst the causes of the demand side.
Other scholars too suggest that inflexible labour market, size of informal economy, inability of industries to scale up and lack of modern manufacturing technologies are major macroeconomic factors affecting demand and acceptability of child labour. Systematic use of child labour was common place in the colonies of European powers between and In Africa, colonial administrators encouraged traditional kin-ordered modes of production, that is hiring a household for work not just the adults. Millions of children worked in colonial agricultural plantations, mines and domestic service industries.
A system of Pauper Apprenticeship came into practice in the 19th century where the colonial master neither needed the native parents' nor child's approval to assign a child to labour, away from parents, at a distant farm owned by a different colonial master. Britain for example passed a law, the so-called Masters and Servants Act of , followed by Tax and Pass Law, to encourage child labour in colonies particularly in Africa. These laws offered the native people the legal ownership to some of the native land in exchange for making labour of wife and children available to colonial government's needs such as in farms and as picannins.
Beyond laws, new taxes were imposed on colonies. One of these taxes was the Head Tax in the British and French colonial empires. The tax was imposed on everyone older than 8 years, in some colonies. To pay these taxes and cover living expenses, children in colonial households had to work. Proposals to regulate child labour began as early as Children working at a young age has been a consistent theme throughout Africa.